The View From the Bottom: Use of Leitmotifs in the Tuba Part of Wagner’s Ring
by T.J. Ricer
Tubists who have studied the orchestral repertoire for their instrument are well aware of Wagnerian opera. To this day, passages from Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg and The Ring of the Nibelung, in particular, The Ride of the Valkyries, are among the most frequently asked-for excerpts on auditions. From the beginning of his career, Wagner used the tuba as an equal to the other musical instruments. This is especially important because he was among the first to do so. Having been invented during the mid-nineteenth century, not all romantic-era composers embraced the tuba. Giuseppe Verdi made use of “trombone bass Verdi” or cimbasso. While the tuba was in its fledgling stage, Verdi is known to have hoped that it would not catch on, saying, “I cherish a Trombone Basso because it is of the same family as the others…but not that damned tuba, which does not blend with the others” (Bevan, 57). In writing for the tuba at this early stage, Wagner set a precedent for how the tuba would be used by his successors.
Many students have studied excerpts from Wagner’s Der Ring des Nibelungen, but how many have seen the cycle in its entirety? How many know the characters and plot? If a person were to look at the tuba part to Siegfried, for example, without knowing the context, he or she probably would not play through much of the part. What a shock it would then be at the first rehearsal to find that the “easy” long notes are actually melodies with character associations and that these are very often solos of great significance to the Ring cycle as a whole. That being said, the prospect of listening to, let alone studying, some sixteen hours worth of opera, can be daunting to a student. However, I have found that this is not as difficult as it may seem, and it is in fact very rewarding.
Wagner wanted his listeners to be able to understand his music on a subconscious level. To do this he employed some techniques that may seem overtly simple. For example, to show physical descent onstage, the music moves downward in register. This is something the listener can latch onto without making a conscious connection. It has even been jokingly referred to as “Opera for Dummies” because every time a character, idea, or event is present, it is “explained” by the music (Caleb Harris). This is easily connected to the tuba part. If one takes a moment to look at the instrument, one sees that the striking features are its physical size and its serpentine coils. Thus, one can understand the two main characters the tuba represents in the opera cycle of The Ring: the giants and the dragon (serpent). In the same way that the tuba is the foundation of the brass section (and the orchestra as a whole), the tuba part also lays the foundation for the musical depiction of Wotan’s fortress, called Valhalla.
Before continuing, I would like to state clearly that I am not a Wagner scholar. To become an expert on Richard Wagner would be daunting since, even before he died, there were already over 10,000 books and articles about Wagner in publication. Indeed, according to Magee, the only two human beings who have had more written about them are Jesus Christ and Napoleon (60). This is pretty high company for a composer. This article is meant to serve as a resource for tubists to begin study of the Ring cycle: useful, but not overwhelming.
The study of Wagner can become consuming not only because of the extreme amount of literature available but also because of the sheer magnitude of his works. In my own case, only one month ago I had never seen any of the four operas in the Ring cycle. Currently, I have experienced each one at least three times, twice via video recordings and once live. The live production was by the Kirov Opera, of St. Petersburg, Russia, directed by Valery Girgiev, on the weekends of July 13–14 and July 20–21, 2007 in New York City. To put this into perspective, it amounts to over fifty hours spent immersed in the world of Wagner’s Ring, not counting the hours of travel over two weekends, from Rochester, N.Y. to New York City and back.
I turn now to consider the musical themes that propel Wagner’s drama—leitmotifs—and their importance to the tuba player. While there is an abundance of literature on leitmotifs in the Ring, for consistency’s sake, I will use the theme titles from J.K. Holman’s Wagner’s Ring: A Listener’s Companion & Concordance (pp. 107–69). This is an extremely clear and approachable resource to begin one’s journey into the Ring. Low-brass parts for the complete Ring are available from Cherry Classics for $25, or they are included in the complete set of orchestral literature (www.cherry-classics.com). What follows is a “play-by-play” description of the general plot lines of the four operas that comprise the Ring of the Nibelung and what the tuba represents within that context.
Prelude and Scene I
The opera opens with the creation of the universe (Motives 1, “Beginning,” and 2, “Nature,” Holman, pp. 109–10). From the single note E-flat, the major triad is developed. The tubist is asked to play 92 consecutive measures of EE-flat. Thus, the tuba color and pitch are the basic building block of the entire universe, not simply a long, low note. The up side to this is that it provides a wonderful warm-up. As a tubist, you will be playing for another two and a half hours without an intermission, so a built-in warm up is extremely helpful. In this scene Alberich, the Nibelung dwarf, is teased by the Rhine maidens who guard the Rheingold. They foolishly tell him that a person who renounces love can use this gold to create a ring that will enable him to rule the world. After the Rheinmaidens have spurned his advances, Alberich decides he’s not going to get love anyway. Thus, he renounces love and steals the gold.
Scene II opens with the Valhalla motive (14, Holman, p. 115). Valhalla is the newly built home of the gods. Wotan (head of the gods) has promised his sister-in-law, Freia, to the giants Fafner and Fasolt as payment for their building this fortress. The tuba represents the giants (17, Holman). This takes place on page four of the tuba part, marked Molto pesante. Of course, Wotan’s wife Fricka (goddess of marriage) is not happy with him for making this deal. Because Wotan is a god of contracts, he must pay the giants rather than defeating them by force. On the advice of Loge (god of fire), he agrees with the giants to gain Alberich’s hoard of gold as a replacement for Freia.
We find that Alberich, having made himself a ring, has taken over the dwarf race, the Nibelungs, by means of its power and has compelled his brother, Mime, to build a magic helmet (“tarnhelm”) that allows its wearer to change into any shape or to teleport himself to any place. Loge and Wotan travel to the underworld to find Alberich’s gold.
The first entrance of the tuba in this scene serves two purposes. First, the falling half step represents the emotion of “Woe” throughout the Ring cycle (7, Holman, p. 112). The descending scale that follows shows that Wotan and Loge are descending from the heavens into the underworld (known as “Nibelheim”). Through flattery, Loge convinces Alberich to display the power of the tarnhelm. He first transforms into a fearsome dragon. The tubist depicts the dragon (32, “Serpent,” Holman, p. 124). This theme, at the top of page nine in the tuba part, is one of the most important to the tubist and returns often in the rest of the opera cycle.
The genius of Wagner can be seen on many levels in this excerpt, illuminating how the layers of complexity fit together, one inside another throughout the opera. The theme of the ring rises and then falls as it comes full circle, like a ring (12, “The Ring,” Holman, p. 114). In the Serpent motive, the serpent’s coils are represented musically as doing the same thing. Note how the pitch level rises for eight measures and then descends for eight measures. Note also that in this scene, within the earth, the solo takes place at the pitch level of the earth (EE-flat) and rises to the third (g), thus outlining the triad that made the Nature theme (2, Holman). Measures 11, 12, and 13 of this excerpt each are a self-contained model of this. This is not only present in the pitches but also in the dynamics. The excerpt begins at piano and rises to fortissimo before descending again to piano. The “hairpin” crescendo/decrescendo pairings throughout are a smaller version of this. If played with intent, the wide slurs can give the effect of the slithering of this serpent. A bit of glissando for effect in this excerpt is not unreasonable.
After turning into a dragon, Alberich is coerced into becoming a toad, in which form he is captured by Wotan and Loge
Wotan forces Alberich to turn over his hoard of gold, including the tarnhelm and the ring. Alberich places an evil curse on the ring as it is taken from him. To release Freia, the Giants demand that gold be piled up high enough to completely conceal her form. Once she is hidden behind the gold, the tarnhelm is demanded to cover her hair, and the ring is demanded to block out her gaze. When Wotan hesitates to turn over the ring, the earth-goddess Erda appears to warn him about the curse. We know that the curse is working when, immediately upon receiving the ring, Fafner kills his brother Fasolt to get it. In the end, the gods enter their new home (Valhalla) across a rainbow bridge, while hearing the Rheinmaidens lament the loss of their gold. In this scene, the Valhalla motive (14) returns in the tuba part.
Act I, Prelude and Scene I
The prelude to Die Walküre depicts a storm. A travel-weary stranger appears in the house of Hunding. This stranger meets Hunding’s wife, Sieglinde. They have an immediate attraction.
Hunding returns home to find a stranger in his home and, by the rules of hospitality, must allow him to rest for the night. The stranger will only give “Woeful” and “Wolf-cub” as his possible names. Hunding and Sieglinde question this stranger and it comes out that Hunding is among the enemies from which he was fleeing. A choir of Wagner tuben, supported by the tuba, musically represents Hunding. The tuba playing in this scene is depicting Hunding (48, Holman, p.130).
Sieglinde drugs her husband Hunding so he does not wake up while she gets to know this stranger. They realize their similar backgrounds, and it comes out that the stranger is really her twin brother, Siegmund. Siegmund is able to recover a sword that had been stuck into the ash tree that grows in Hunding’s house. His father had promised him a sword in his hour of greatest need, so he dubs it “Nothung” (Needful). The siblings fall madly in love and decide to run away together. Wotan fathered these children in the hope of siring a hero strong enough to take the ring back from Fafner, the giant. Wotan is bound by the contract he had with Fafner, but he will gladly take the ring back if someone else will get it for him.
Act II, Prelude and Scene I
At some point between Das Rheingold and Die Walküre, Wotan has had a daughter with Erda. Their daughter Brünnhilde is one of the nine Valkyries: warrior daughters of Wotan. In this scene, Wotan sends Brünnhilde to protect Siegmund in his fight with Hunding. As the goddess of marriage, Wotan’s wife Frika is already angry about his illegitimate children and is even more upset that he is allowing their love to flourish against all morality and defiling Hunding’s marriage to Sieglinde. In pointing out that he, Wotan, is going against his own contracts—with her as his wife and with Fafner as owner of the ring (he means for Siegmund to steal it for him)—Frika forces Wotan to face his duplicity and take away the power of the magic sword he has given his son and back Hunding in the battle.
Wotan commands Brünnhilde to support Hunding in the fight, despite what he actually wants to happen. As he explains this, he retells much of the story from Das Rheingold. In the tuba part, part of the Valhalla motive is present, as is Wotan’s spear motive, which represents the contracts that he has entered into and the very basis by which he is a god (14, “Valhalla” and 24 “Spear,” Holman, pp. 115 and 119).
The tuba does not play in Scene III. In this scene, Siegmund does his best to console Sieglinde, who is frightened and exhausted to the point of hallucinating.
Brünnhilde appears to Siegmund to tell him of his death in the upcoming battle, but she is so moved by his love for Sieglinde that she decides to go against Wotan’s command; she will back Siegmund instead of Hunding. This decision is made easier by the fact that she knows this is what Wotan would actually want but cannot ask for. The scene opens with the tubist again performing descending half steps indicating the unpleasantness of Brünnhilde’s tasks (7, “Woe,” Holman, p. 112). A brief portion of the Valhalla theme appears in the tuba part when Brunnhilde tells Siegmund that he will be taken there when he dies (14, “Valhalla,” Holman, p. 115).
The fight between Siegmund and Hunding occurs. Brünnhilde attempts to back Siegmund, but Wotan appears and breaks the sword (Nothung) with his spear. This allows Hunding the opportunity he needs to kill Siegmund. The tubist signifies Hunding again in this scene (48 “Hunding,” Holman, p. 130) and gets to give a complete and terrifying statement of Wotan’s Spear (24, “Spear,” Holman, p. 119).
Act III, Prelude and Scene I
Finally! The Ride of the Valkyries arrives—the orchestral excerpt that tuba players practice all their life to do (61 “Valkyries,” Holman, p. 135)! Brünnhilde, having taken Sieglinde with her, has flown from Wotan’s wrath. Her eight warrior-sisters are riding on their winged horses, taking dead warriors from battle to Valhalla. Brünnhilde brings Sieglinde into the midst of her sisters and informs her that she is pregnant with the world’s greatest hero, to be named Siegfried. Sieglinde runs off into the woods before Wotan can find them. The scene ends with an extended ascending chromatic scale in the tuba part that heightens the tension as Brünnhilde tries to hide from Wotan.
Wotan decrees that Brünnhilde will be punished for disobeying him. She will become a mortal and sleep upon a rock, to be taken as property by the first man who finds her. The brasses loudly signify Wotan’s conflicted feelings with several statements of the Spear/Contract motive in the tuba (24 “Spear,” Holman, p. 119), contrasted with variations on Wotan’s “Frustration” (65, Holman, p. 136).
Wotan relents slightly and allows Brunnhilde to be surrounded by magic fire so that the man who comes to claim her must be a true hero. He orders Loge to surround Brunnhilde’s rock with flame. The “Spear” (24, Holman, p. 119) and The “Valkyries” (61, Holman, p. 135) motives are present in the tuba part in this closing scene.
In this opera, Fafner, the Giant, has used the tarnhelm to change into a dragon. The tubist is as a much a part of this character as the man on stage. The Serpent theme (32, Holman, p. 124) almost constantly recurs throughout the first two acts. In this opera, however, it is at the pitch level of the Giants (C) rather than the pitch level of the earth (EE-flat), as it was when Alberich turned into a dragon deep within the earth.
Act I, Prelude and Scene I
Siegmund and Sieglinde’s son Siegfried is a young man when Siegfried opens. The dwarf Mime, brother of Alberich, has raised Siegfried since his mother died, apparently in childbirth. He has raised him with the sole goal of using him to kill Fafner and gain the ring for his own purposes, so the “Serpent” theme (32, Holman, p. 124), which now represents Fafner (92, “Fafner as Dragon,” Holman, p. 148), underlies much of their interaction.
Wotan shows up as “the Wanderer” and he and Mime question each other. This serves to remind the audience what happened in the previous operas. In his handbook The Musical Design of “the Ring,” A. E. F. Dickinson characterizes this as “a glaring dramatic irrelevancy” (p. 31), but with the listeners’ familiarity with the motives from the previous operas, this recapitulation is better appreciated. Wagner wrote the librettos in reverse order (Lee, 25), starting with Götterdämmerung, adding each of the three earlier operas as he decided the audience would need more background. This is one moment when the audience might be aware that Wagner is repeating himself. Wotan stumps Mime with the question of how to re-forge the magic sword, Nothung. Wotan allows Mime to live, but warns him that his head belongs to the man who will forge Nothung anew and knows no fear. This scene is rife with motives that the tubist has played before. They include the Serpent (32), Valhalla (14), the Spear (24), and the bass line (but not the melody) of the Giants theme (17). One must always be aware that the simplest looking parts are often the most exposed (as is abundantly clear in the prelude of Act II).
Worried that the man who has not learned fear, Siegfried, will kill him, Mime tries to explain fear. Siegfried does not understand and proves to be this man by forging Nothung. Mime tells Siegfried that Fafner the dragon can teach him fear, and he hatches a plan to poison Siegfried after Siegfried has killed Fafner.
Act II, Prelude
This is perhaps the longest tuba solo in all of the operatic literature. Although the technical requirements are not virtuosic, the long phases and sparse scoring make this a highly demanding section. In this passage it is made clear that we are about to meet the dragon.
Alberich and Mime mock one another’s past attempts at gaining the ring and its powers. Like the earlier scene between Mime and Wotan, this scene reminds the audience of what happened in the previous operas. Alberich tells Fafner that a hero is coming to kill him for the ring and tries in vain to persuade him to give it up. Wotan warns Alberich about trying to regain the ring. Each character is so intent upon possessing it that none is interested in the other’s plans. The scenes shift while the tubist, again, represents the dragon.
Mime tries again to teach Siegfried fear by describing Fafner, but this fails and he leaves him alone. On his own, Siegfried wonders what the birds are saying and tries to imitate them, first on a reed, then on his horn. At the sound of the horn Fafner awakens and comes out of his cave. Siegfried slays the dragon, but, before dying, Fafner warns Siegfried to watch out for Mime. Upon accidentally tasting the dragon’s blood, Siegfried finds that he can understand the birds. As would be expected, the tubist portrays the dragon many times in this scene.
The dragon’s blood has not only let Siegfried understand the bird, but it has also allowed him to hear what Mime really means, rather than what he says. Through this he understands Mime’s plot to poison and kill him. Instead of allowing this, Siegfried runs him through with Nothung. The bird tells him of a woman asleep on a rock surrounded by fire, and Siegfried sets off on this new adventure. With the dragon vanquished, we can let that motive rest for a while. At this point in the work, Wagner took a twelve-year hiatus from The Ring and composed Tristan and Isolde and Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg (Lee, 78).
Act III, Prelude and Scene I
The tuba part to the prelude of Act III clearly reminds the listener of Wotan and his conflicted feelings at having punished Brünnhilde. In the ninth measure the tubist plays the “Frustration” motive (65, Holman, p. 136) and four measures later the “Spear” motive (24, Holman, p. 119). In the first scene of this act, Wotan awakens Erda, whom he turns to for advice. When Wotan put Brünnhilde to sleep, Wagner signified this with a descending chromatic scale (76, “Sleep,” Holman, p. 141). It should be no surprise now when he is waking up Erda that the tuba plays an ascending chromatic scale. After asking why she is being consulted rather than Brünnhilde, Erda is less than sympathetic when she learns that Wotan has put their daughter to sleep. The audience gets the first hints that Wotan has not felt whole since losing his favorite daughter and is giving in to a change in world order.
Wotan makes his final stand against this new world order by attempting to bar Siegfried’s way to Brünnhilde. In the process, his spear is destroyed by the very sword it once shattered.
In the final scene, the tubist can feel the new compositional style of Wagner strongly. After taking more than a decade off before writing the final act of Siegfried, there were bound to be some changes in his approach. The leitmotifs have become more intertwined and represent more complex relationships and emotions. For example, on the second to last page of this opera, the tubist plays the “Volsung’s Woe” motive (47, Holman, p. 130), part of the “Struggling Against Fate” motive (66, p. 137), leading directly into a version of “the Heroic in Siegfried” (72, p. 139). This kind of superimposition of ideas in the very lowest part of the orchestra demonstrates just how much is going on.
Siegfried goes through the magic fire and finds Brünnhilde (who is the first woman he has ever seen). He goes through several astutely observed psychological reactions to this. At first, seeing a woman makes him think of his mother. Perhaps the sentiment easiest to identify with Siegfried’s experiences is fear upon discovering a woman and also loves for the first time. By tapping into these basic emotional levels, Wagner makes this large-scale, mythic story into something intensely personal for the audience. These two characters fall madly in love and close the opera by laughing at and welcoming their love and mortality.
The three Norns (daughters of Erda) are weaving the thread of the world and wondering what is going to happen next. They tell the story of the beginning of time, thus recapping the actions of the previous operas and even earlier events. When the libretto was written, this opera was meant to standalone, so much of what happened in the previous operas is retold. Only through our familiarity with the leitmotifs from the previous operas is this scene fully appreciated. From the Norns, we move to Siegfried and Brünnhilde. They are very much in love and she sends Siegfried off into the world, armed with her wisdom, to achieve great things.
Act I, Scene I
The tuba is tacet through this scene. Three human characters are introduced: siblings Gunther, and Gutrune and their half-brother Hagen. Hagen is the son of Alberich and is bent upon regaining the ring. The three, goaded by Hagen, hatch a plan to take Brünnhilde for Gunther and Siegfried for Gutrune. Hagen does not inform his half siblings that Brünnhilde and Siegfried are already lovers and pledged to one another. He has created this plan to gain the ring, which information he has also denied his half-siblings.
This scene brings about the execution of their plan. They drug Siegfried to make him fall in love with Gutrune. In doing so, he forgets Brünnhilde. To “win” Gutrune, Siegfried agrees to woo Brünnhilde (whom he does not remember as his wife) for his new blood brother, Gunther. The tubist recalls the Spear motive (24, Holman, p. 119) in this scene, representing contracts when he and Gunther become blood brothers and when he agrees to win Brünnhilde for Gunther.
Brünnhilde’s Valkyrie sister, Waltraute, comes to her rock to appeal to her to give the ring back to the Rhine maidens. Brünnhilde will not be swayed to give up the symbol of her love, even though it means the end for the gods. Waltraute reveals that Wotan has not sent the Valkyries out to battle since he punished Brünnhilde, showing that he has accepted the downfall of the gods.
Siegfried then returns to Brünnhilde but disguised by the tarnhelm to look like Gunther. There he claims her as Gunther’s bride, wresting the ring from her finger. The Valhalla motive (14, Holman, p. 115) is briefly referenced on page seven of the tuba part, but one is apt to wonder if Wagner heard poor performances from a tubist during the twelve years he took off from writing the Ring, as, since then (Act III of Siegfried), the tuba part has lacked the melodic content it had in the other operas. Another possible interpretation of this is that, since the tuba was part of the primordial birth of the world in Das Rheingold, as the world moves toward its impending doom, this basic element (the tuba sound) is less and less present (Korin Kormick).
Act II, Scene I
Alberich appears to Hagen as if in a dream and pushes him to regain the ring.
This is another scene without tuba. Siegfried returns to Gibichung, the home of Gunther, Gutrune, and Hagen. He has left Brünnhilde with Gunther and teleported himself home using the tarnhelm.
Hagen assembles the people of Gibichung to celebrate the wedding of Gunther and Brünnhilde. This scene contains the first use of chorus in all of the Ring cycle. With the chorus comes some big brass orchestration. While the tuba part consists mostly of arpeggios within the section, this is an excerpt that should be studied for performance. The rhythms distinctly evoke Gunther’s motive (119, Holman, p. 159).
The scene opens with the chorus joyfully greeting Gunther and Brünnhilde, blissfully unaware of the machinations that brought them together. Brünnhilde is horrified to find Siegfried among her capturers and even more upset to find that he is betrothed to Gutrune. Brünnhilde demands an explanation, and she and Siegfried swear on Hagen’s spear that the other is lying. The confusion makes it seem to the Gibichung people that Siegfried has betrayed his oath to Gunther and to Brünnhilde that he seized her while in the tarnhelm disguise.
Brünnhilde reveals to Hagen that Siegfried’s one weak spot is his back. Brünnhilde, Hagen, and Gunther swear to kill Siegfried.
Act III, Prelude and Scene I
Out on a hunt, Siegfried gets separated from the group and meets the Rhine maidens. They attempt to convince him to give up the ring and warn him of its curse. Siegfried, feeling that he has to prove that he fears no curse, keeps the ring. The Rhine maidens predict that he will die on this day. This is another scene remarkably void of the tuba’s voice. There is one FF-sharp near the beginning and then the tuba is tacet for the remainder of the scene.
Upon rejoining the hunting group, Siegfried is asked to tell stories of his youth. He goes on to retell the events of Siegfried. Before he reaches the point in the narrative where he finds Brünnhilde, Hagen gives him the antidote to the love/forgetfulness potion he had been given earlier. As he tells of finding and taking Brünnhilde for himself, it appears that he has gone against his oath to Gunther. Under the guise of revenge for his half-brother, Hagen kills Siegfried. Siegfried finally remembers that Brünnhilde is his one true love as he dies. The tuba part includes a low-register variant on the “Volsung’s Woe” theme here (47, Holman, p. 130).
Upon their return from the hunt, Gunther tells Gutrune that her husband has been killed by a boar. She accuses him of killing him, but Hagen steps in to take the credit. Claiming that he gets the spoils for killing Siegfried, he tries to take the ring from the body. Gunther is killed in their fight over who owns the ring. Brünnhilde realizes what has actually happened and explains how, in betraying her, Siegfried was being true to another pact and was, therefore, a good person. She returns the ring to the Rhine maidens, sets Valhalla ablaze and rides her horse into Siegfried’s funeral pyre. The Rhine River overflows its banks and the fire from Siegfried’s pyre and Valhalla consumes the universe, cleansing the world of all the ill deeds and false contracts. This brings the cycle all the way around from the beginning of the universe to the end and infers that time is cyclical, like a ring, and this end holds the potential for a better beginning to come.
Clearly the tuba part for Der Ring das Nibelungen is more than a series of excerpts to be played with technical proficiency. While this is an important goal, each passage also has important dramatic implications. As Barry Millingon notes, “There are countless instrumental solos in the Ring—more than anywhere else in Wagner’s oeuvre—often consisting of just a bar or two, and time and again we are made aware of how the choice of instrument is an intrinsic part of the enactment of the drama” (p. 221).
This article should not, then, be an end, but merely a starting point for the study of this music and, by association, the study of any music over which one wishes to achieve more complete mastery and understanding.
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Boulez, Pierre (conductor). (1980). Der Ring Des Nibelungen (video recording).
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Dickinson, A. E. F. (1926). The Musical Design of “The Ring.” London: Oxford
Holman, J. K. (1996). Wagner’s Ring: A Listener’s Companion and Concordance.
Pompton Plains: Amadeus Press.
Lee, M. Owen. (1990). Wagner’s Ring: Turning the Sky Round. New York: Limelight
Magee, Bryan. (1969). Aspects of Wagner. New York: Stein and Day Publishers.
Millington, Barry. (1984). Wagner. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Russell Anna. (1991). The Anna Russell Album? (sound recording). Sony B0000027JD.
Wagner, Richard. (1938). The Authentic Librettos of Wagner Operas. New York:
T. J. RICER holds a Bachelor of Music from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio and a Master of Music from the University of Tennessee in Knoxville, Tennessee, and is currently pursuing his Doctorate in Tuba Performance at the Eastman School of Music. His principal tuba teachers have been Sande MacMorran, Mike Thornton, Sam Green, Gary Langhorst and Don Harry. In addition to his tuba studies, Mr. Ricer has studied the electric bass with G. Roger Davis and Harold “Rusty” Holloway and the trombone with Don Hough. He has performed with the Cincinnati, Knoxville, Springfield, Lima, Middletown, and Lebanon Symphony Orchestras and the Knoxville Wind Symphony and played bass trombone with the Blue Wisp, Streamliners, and Jack Carr big bands. When not playing the tuba, Ricer is the lead singer and bass player of CASH Back: A Tribute to the Man in Black.