Out of the 19th century Russian low brass tradition which brought us Ewald, Ramsoe, Schlossberg and Blazhevich came a composer of whom much less is known. Between 1886 and 1893 Robert Kietzer, a military bandmaster from St. Petersburg and likely a cornet player, composed twelve known study books for various instruments. Three tuba and euphonium study books are still in print today, the Schule for Tuba in F or Eb or Helicon, the Schule for Tuba in Bb or C (or Helicon, Bombardon, Sousaphone), and the Schule for Baritone and Valve Trombone. Our current American school of tuba and euphonium teaching takes much from this Russian tradition, but the Kietzer methods are not commonly used. While they continue to be published and are widely available on the internet, they have not until now been studied. This article will examine these three little-known relics of low brass history, for which room should be made in our American low brass studios. The Schulen provide modern performers not only with a fascinating glimpse into the past, but with technical etudes, range work, lyrical studies and folk songs, and are a beautiful example of the historic Russian teaching method.
For tuba and euphonium players, method books are comfortable. They are our security blankets, providing us the assurance that if we stick with them, and follow their lead, everything will be okay. For many of us, method books provide the core teaching material we were given as students, causing us great worry and alarm as we tongued and slurred, leaped and breathed, counted, struggled and flexed our young muscles. Metronomes, tuners and countless pencils rested on the pages of our books, fell to the floor, were picked up, ran out of batteries, were replaced, were lost and repurchased. College tuba and euphonium study meant long hours in the practice room managing anywhere from one to six (or more) exercises for our upcoming lesson, ever more quickly approaching, not knowing which would be chosen to be heard, but attempting to master the difficulties just in case. In turn, we pass on our skills to the next generation in this same way. We assign these same exercises of our own youth as we teach, watching our students laugh at the dates pencilled at the top of the pages in our worn and disintegrating books, students for whom even the 1980s are ancient history. Forming a cornerstone of our pedagogy, method books, along with warm-up exercises, solos and excerpts, provide us with the experience we may not yet have received in the real world.
Method books are sets of situations. These situations, which could be moments in three-eight time, or in six flats, or staccato, or chromaticism, are waiting to be absorbed, considered and executed. We use these books because they mimic the situations we might find ourselves involved with in the outside world, when we might not have the time to figure them out. Each exercise has a real life application and often turns out to be more difficult, technical, or chromatic than most tuba and euphonium parts are on a day to day basis. If we are schooled with the most difficult of situations, we can live with ease through our performance lives. Our fingers and lips repeat patterns for years so they are automatic, and our books push us higher and lower, out of tune and out of our comfort zone. We learn to keep a pulse in all these situations, to play in tune in any situation, and finally, hopefully, to be musical in all situations. A good method book will start where we are and then take us slightly past where we thought we could go, each turn of the page presenting the next impossible situation, lower and higher than the last, less comfortable, and more demanding. If a euphonium player is working on a solo by Philip Sparke, the going is smoother if they have learned their Rochut books first. The John Williams Concerto for Tuba is mastered much more easily if the player has spent years playing Kopprasch. These books are generally inexpensive and widely available. These situations which mimic real life keep us fit for the battles which lie ahead, and are priceless.
We performers who have been out of school for decades still reach daily for our Kopprasch, Arban, Blazhevich, Tyrell or Bordogni, as we attempt to stay in shape or prepare for an audition, recital, or recording session. Our method books come to us from France, Russia, Italy, America and beyond, and have often been passed down from horn, trumpet, trombone players and singers, from famous stars and from those whose accomplishments have been lost to history. Just when we think we have mastered one, it turns out there are more volumes, or new books just published. TubeNet, the place to go for tuba and euphonium talk, always has much to say regarding our favorites. Those mentioned above, and other classics like Concone, Schlossberg, Gregoriev and Charlier, plus new stars such as Snedecor are cited time and time again as important resources. We have our system and it works well. While over time the low brass community absorbs newly available material, some method books remain generally unknown even today, and that is what has happened with the books of Robert Kietzer.
Low brass players, perhaps because of our slightly shorter history and the tendency to envy the large amount of materials available to the high brasses, are thrilled to find new music, and feel a strong need to place ourselves in a historical context. The discovery of new music never fails to enchant us, and it was in this spirit that I, in the vein of Pablo Casals and the Bach Cello Suites, pulled the Schule for Tuba in F and Eb from a shelf in a small bookstore in Bremen, Germany. A little tuba book, in a pile of music for piano, with its faded red cover, in a tiny room of a tiny store with no other low brass music. What reason it had to be there we may never know. The cobblestone streets of the Altstadt, or Old Town, of Bremen are a maze of shops and curving alleyways, the oldest buildings dating to the 15th century, the type of place to wander joyfully for hours. Convinced I had stumbled upon a treasure (which one could say I had), I paid the fee of 18.95€ penciled lightly on the back cover, the Euro making that at the time about thirty-three dollars. Who was this Robert Kietzer, and how could it be that I had never heard of him, or his red tuba book?
To nail down who Robert Kietzer was and what his life was like is a task which remains tantalizingly incomplete. We know little about him, and much of what we do know is guesses, but one thing is clear. Beginning in 1885, Kietzer wrote a series of method books for the St. Petersburg Musical Wind Instruments Factory, which had been founded a decade earlier by Heinrich Zimmermann. Zimmerman published music as well as manufacturing instruments. Following in the footsteps of V. F. Cerveny, who had been manufacturing brass instruments from 1842, Zimmermann soon had stores in Moscow, London, Leipzig and later Frankfurt. One of the marketing promotions for instrument sales was the Red Tutor Series, where buyers of a new instrument would be given a free method book with their purchase. “The ‘Red Tutors’ have gone through numerous editions and have become a common background for several generations of music teachers,” boasts the press release on the back cover of the volume. Edward Tarr, in his invaluable research into Russian trumpet history, was able to document the dates of composition based on Kietzer’s surviving contracts with Zimmermann, which range from 1886 to 1893. There are thirteen known in the series including books for trumpet, cornet, alto and tenor horn, alto, tenor and bass trombone, percussion, two for clarinet, and the volumes for F and Eb tuba, Bb or C tuba, and baritone or valve trombone.
A composer with twenty-three known works for military band, orchestra, and cornet, Robert Kietzer probably played cornet himself. His dates are unknown, but he comes to our attention in St. Petersburg, active between 1886 and 1907. The latter date is that of his last known composition, an untitled work for band. In the contracts he signed with Zimmermann, he listed his credentials as “Imperial Russian and formerly Royal Prussian military bandmaster.” Kietzer was working in a vibrant city full of brass playing, and his connections in the military likely continued to give him performance and composition opportunities even after the end of his service as bandmaster. As Zimmermann was the main supplier of military instruments in the area, the choice of a military composer and performer was natural. Three of Kietzer’s compositions for cornet and piano have been unearthed in a collection circa 1910, which also includes works by Chopin, Böhme, Mendelssohn, Tchaikovsky, Wagner and Verdi. Another cornet and piano work, his Fantasy, op. 93 was advertised as being part of the repertoire of famous cornet soloist Wilhelm Wurm. A well-known German soloist popular throughout Russia, Wurm was a friend of Arban, who dedicated his Caprice and Variations to Wurm in 1864.
Music publishers took every opportunity to advertise material in connection with the activity of Wurm and other top performers.
Kietzer’s known works were all published through Zimmermann. Interestingly, the publishing company hired the American musicologist and editor Theodore Baker to write the translations for the Kietzer method books. Baker, famous today for his Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, published in 1900, studied and lived in Germany and often worked as a translator. The twentieth century was a difficult one for St. Petersburg and for many of its businesses, including Zimmermann’s, which held all of Kietzer’s materials. The destruction of revolution and wartime closed many factories as St. Petersburg became Petrograd and then Leningrad. The privatization which came in the 1990s caused further disruption. But today the St. Petersburg Musical Wind Instruments Factory is alive and well. The publishing arm which holds the Kietzer materials is a separate company, which merged with Robert Lienau Publishing in Frankfurt. The Kietzer music may be found there today.
The Schule for Tuba, op. 84, 1889, 1900
“In the last century, at the time of the “old Fritz,” military music was still in an extremely primitive condition. The band of that period (2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, and 2 bassoons) was insufficient for the most modest requirements; for only the two companies heading the regiment could hear anything of the music so made. The 2nd bassoon was the sole bass instrument, and the reader may imagine the effect upon the ear attained by such a means, especially in the open air.”
There are two method books for tuba by Kietzer, each containing two parts which are bound together in one volume. His Schule for F and Eb or Helicon, op. 84 (1889), contains fingering charts and information for tubas in F, C, Bb and Eb with three and four valves. It covers a range from Bb1 to Eb4 and is eighty-seven pages in length. The text is presented in Russian, German and English in all three of Kietzer’s method books. The Schule for Tuba in Bb or C (or Helicon, Bombardon, Sousaphone) was added to the collection in 1900, contains slightly updated English translations, and covers a range from D1 to Bb3. Exercises are the same as the original, but written down a fourth. This second method for Bb or C tuba contains a few more pages of additional exercises, two new sections of exercises for the advancement of low range, and is the longest of the three method books at one hundred sixty pages.
On the Staff
The Diatonic Scale
The Chromatic Scale
The Pitch of the Instrument
The Attitude of the Player and Holding the Instrument
The Valves and Fingering
On the Signs for the Repeat and the Close
Glossary of Italian Terms (included in the updated C or Bb version)
Exercises in Various Measures
More Extended Exercises in all Major and Minor Keys
Exercises for the Application of Lower Pitches (included in the updated C or Bb version)
More Extended Exercises in all Major and Minor Keys
Scales and Chords in Keys Less Used (seven flats and three or more sharps, majors and minors)
On the Trill
On the Grace-notes
The Chromatic Scale
Exercises for the Application of Lower Pitches (included in the updated C or Bb version)
All three volumes follow the same general outline and structure, beginning with a written prelude, fingering charts for three and four valves and an overtone series table. After an explanation of basics, the books begin with “Exercises in Various Measures,” which work through common time signatures including 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/4, 3/8, 4/8, 6/8 and 12/8. These exercises begin with simple quarter and eighth note rhythms before beginning to include sixteenth notes. They use dance styles such as the polonaise, waltz, minuet, quickstep, quadrille, and mazurka. Figure 1, “Tempo di Mazurka,” is found early on in the book and represents relatively simple rhythmic work similar to a beginning band tuba part. “Andantino,” which can be seen below the mazurkain Fig. 1, illustrates staccato scale passages in the manner of Kopprasch and Arban. All examples are one fourth higher in the F and Eb version.
Figure 1: Exercises in Various Measures, Schule for Tuba in Bb or C, Part I, p. 28.
“During the Napoleonic wars at the beginning of our century an improvement was made, the bass of the 2nd bassoon being augmented by a so-called Bass Horn, and by a Bass Trombone. In the long period of peace ensuing, the military bands received important additions; the woodwind was strengthened by the double bassoon and the serpent, so named on account of its peculiar convolutions; while the brass was augmented by a bass instrument, the ophicleide. But even these instruments were incapable of satisfying the requirements of the time; until finally, the invention of the Tuba put an end to the quest for a sufficiently heavy bass.”
Each book moves from the opening rhythmic studies into studies arranged by key, beginning with the most comfortable Bb and F majors and d and g minors. Each new key section begins with short exercises outlining intervals from a second to an octave in half notes, moves on to scales and arpeggios, and finishes with more challenging etudes. As Kietzer is preparing tuba and euphonium players primarily for band performance, the books focus on major and minor key signatures up to five flats and one or two sharps. In the end of the books, a section entitled “Scales and Chords in Keys Less Used” notates scales and arpeggios for the major and minor keys of the remaining key signatures. Part I of the books works through the key signatures using short exercises such as the above, which become longer and more complex in Part II. Part I makes wonderful sight-reading practice for college and advanced high-school players and provides a foundation of reading and technique in common keys.
The exercises in Part II, such as the “moderato” shown in Figure 2 below, begin to work with wider intervals and more chromaticism, making them much more difficult. This etude begins reasonably enough with the occasional quarter note allowing the player the chance to take a breath. Midway through, however, those opportunities cease and breathing becomes a challenge. This exercise is consistent with the difficulty level in Blazhevich or Kopprasch. It is evidence that Kietzer was not simply preparing tubists for the usual band situation, rather very much above and beyond.
Figure 2: More extended exercises, Schule for Tuba in Bb or C, Part II, p. 74.
Perhaps the most valuable aspect of these tuba books for players today are the low range exercises in the Bb or C version, twelve at the conclusion of Part I and twelve at the conclusion of Part II. These are small, delightful three to six line exercises, working down to pedal E, Eb, and in two cases, the alternative lower pedal D option. Composed in both major and minor, these low range exercises offer opportunities for breathing and phrasing work, note-reading, interval practice, and musical expression. The e minor “Andantino con moto” shown in Figure 3 works intervals quickly from low to high, and offers multiple options for phrasing. Beginning with the eighth-note pick-up, it would be natural to phrase in that same way later in the exercise. However, slight changes in articulation and slurs cause the player to explore multiple options, which stretch the air supply and force the player to phrase with more variety. Dynamic contrast is plentiful, and the alternation of slur and tongue throughout demands focus.
Figure 3: Exercises for the lower pitches, Schule for Tuba in Bb or C, Part I, p. 49.
These two tuba volumes, composed over a century ago, hold within them the introductory material to get a player started, from an explanation of the staff and fingerings to exercises in counting methods and key signature work. The player who comes to the books with prior knowledge will find challenges in counting, articulation, breathing, range and phrasing. For all of us, the addition of new material is valuable in itself, and these volumes are ideal for sight-reading and audition preparation. It is the advancement of our craft and the desire for ease which brings us to new materials, and as Kietzer himself points out,
“Beginners do not generally enjoy these solfeggi; nevertheless, it is very important that the pupil should practice them regularly in every key; for this enables him not only to produce a full, healthy tone, but also to take wide and difficult intervals with precision.”
This “precision,” so hard to achieve and so easy to lose, may be honed in these volumes. While tuba students of a century ago may well have wondered why they needed it, today our level of literature and the level of expectation for our instrument makes us glad we know where to find it.
The Schule for Bariton, op. 82, 1889
“The Baritone is one of the most powerful of modern brass instruments. It is, however, employed only in military bands, in which it takes the part assumed by the Violoncello in the string band. The instrument has at easy command a compass of two octaves; its tone is full and sonorous in nearly all registers, and is therefore admirably suited for the cantilena, but also answers so promptly and easily that it may be employed in the most difficult passages.”
The Bariton oder Bass Schule, op. 82, contains a good deal more for the musician in terms of variety than the tuba volumes. This method is also listed in a later handbook of music literature published between 1904 and 1910 as the Schule für Eufonion. The volume follows the same basic set-up as the tuba books. It is one hundred three pages long and divided into two parts, covering a range from F2 to Bb4. The exercises are in general more advanced than those in the tuba methods, requiring a higher level of flexibility and technique. Another difference is the addition in this volume of short classical pieces, hymns, and folk songs designed to exploit the instrument’s cantilena or lyrical qualities. While tubists will be disappointed that these have not been included in the aforementioned volumes, euphonium players will enjoy the additional material for musical expression. They also work beautifully on F tuba.
The technical exercises work through time and key signatures, divided between Part I and Part II as with the tuba volumes. Challenges are presented in tongue and slur combinations and tricky interval work. This can be seen in Figure 4, “Allegro” and “Allegretto,” from Part I.
Figure 4: Exercises for the baritone, Bariton oder Bass Schule, op. 82, Part I, p. 43.
Figure 5: Exercises for the baritone, Bariton oder Bass Schule, op. 82, Part II, p. 5.
The exercises continue in Part II, moving through major and minor keys from six flats to two sharps, Kietzer again providing the player with a page of scales and arpeggios for the remaining keys at the conclusion of the volume. Figure 5, from Part II, working in the key of Eb major, begins with the following advice, “Practice alternately with staccato and legato. The tongue, which gradually tires in playing staccato, is refreshed and strengthened by the legato.” The “Andante” in figure 5 contains leaps, chromaticism, and numerous articulation pattern changes. The shifting between sixteenth and thirty-second note figures, and the high to low work in the last line will leave even the most agile player in need of refreshment.
The addition of melodies from popular classical music of the day provides a wealth of melodic material interspersed throughout the key and time signature exercises which focus more on technique. Composers represented are Schubert, Chopin, Handel, Weber, Nicolai, Donizetti, Bellini, Beethoven, Mozart, and German opera composer Albert Lortzing. In addition to the exercises in dance styles such as the minuet and waltz, numerous folk songs are included, from the Irish “Last Rose of Summer” to the Russian “Lovely Minka” and “When We Two CameTogether.” Many themes from operas and stage works are represented, from The Merry Wives of Windsor to The Freeshooter and Judas Maccabeus. For today’s performer, whether a euphonium player or tubist reading on F tuba, these short melodies serve as perfect phrase and melodic practice. Figure 6 illustrates a lovely Russian folk song in e minor, which uses the E above the staff as a focal point, reached by octave leap each time, again demonstrating subtle shifts in phrase structure throughout.
Figure 6: From the famous melodies section, Bariton oder Bass Schule, op. 82, Part II, p. 30.
While it turns out that there are indeed those who study and recommend these Kietzer methods, they are mostly unfamiliar to American players. The books are more familiar and are recommended by Europeans. Comments have included “Robert Kietzer: School for BBb-tuba (ca 1890) is useable today” and “Another tip; if you’re learning the F, get some methods and etudes you haven’t worked on before. The Kietzer Schule for tuba in F and Eb…is a really good one to use to learn the horn.” In the many years of posts on our popular website, TubeNet, Robert Kietzer is mentioned only three times.
The difficulty level overall is slightly below the college level books discussed earlier such as those by Blazhevich or Kopprasch. The Tuba Source Book lists the level of the lower Bb or C book as II-III, appropriate for Intermediate (two to three years) and High School levels, and the level of the F and Eb version as a I-IV, or from beginner to university/college level, perhaps because of the higher range. Kopprasch, Blazhevich, Tyrell, and Charlier, for comparison, are all rated a III-IV, and generally have longer and slightly more technical exercises. While the range used and technical demands in the Kietzer books won’t overly challenge an advanced player today, several of the exercises are more difficult. Perhaps the most valuable materials are the lyrical exercises found in the euphonium volume, as discussed, and the lower exercises in the Bb or C tuba volume, which showcase elegant phrase possibilities and breathing work.
Kietzer’s books are expensive; for American consumers, even with budget shipping from Europe these books will run about $32.00 in comparison to the more reasonably priced books such as Rochut or Tyrell, which can still be found for about $15.00. But one might consider the historical value as an offset to the price. Tuba and euphonium literature does not include much nineteenth century original composition in method book form. We rely on nineteenth century transcriptions of works for higher brass such as Arban and Kopprasch, which remain technically challenging for all players today. But we can’t claim ownership of those methods. We do have excellent beginnings in the first serpent and ophicleide books from the early decades of the century, but more research is needed sorting out and publishing resources from this era.
These three volumes are certainly some of the earliest published music for tuba and euphonium. The earliest dated method book listed in the Guide to the Euphonium Repertoire is the White’s Elementary Method for the Baritone, published in Boston in 1884, five years before Kietzer’s euphonium method. Only one tuba method book is documented in the updated edition of Guide to the Tuba Repertoire as predating these Schulen: the J.W. Pepper’s New and Popular Self Instructor for the Bb Bass, published in the United States in 1886. While the 1939 Textbook for Tuba by Blazhevich is noted as being the “first Russian etude book specifically for tuba,” we now know the Kietzer books to have been published around fifty years earlier. It is vital we encourage our students and ourselves to know our history and to appreciate the growth in equipment, range, facility and technique we have experienced in the one hundred and eleven years since these volumes were written. When Robert Kietzer sat down to compose sets of exercises which would help the local low brass performers in St. Petersburg master the tuba and euphonium, he likely never dreamed the performance level would reach that which we take for granted today. His advice still has much worth for the modern player who opens a book looking for a situation which will improve his or her playing. While Kietzer may not have been able to envision our world today, he clearly felt it necessary to prepare.
“The trill hardly ever occurs for wind instruments of the construction of the low tuba in Bb, the bore of the tubes and width of the mouthpiece rendering its execution almost impossible; nevertheless, the tuba-player ought to be a musician as well, and to know what a trill is and how it is played.”
2 For TubeNet discussion regarding method books, see http://forums.chisham.com, and search for method or etude discussion. One popular posting from April, 2005 asked for contributions for a top five list of favorites and received many responses.
3 Bremen is also the site of the first performance of the Brahms German Requiem, in 1868, at the St. Petri Dom, where there has been a church since the year 789. As this piece is of special importance to tuba players due to the beautiful use of our instrument in the work, it is fitting that a new tuba music source appeared while visiting.
6 Edward Tarr, East Meets West: The Russian Trumpet Tradition from the Time of Peter the Great to the October Revolution. Bucina: The Historical Brass Society Series No. 4. Pendragon Press: Hillsdale, NY. 2003. p. 316-317.
18 R. Winston-Morris and Daniel Perantoni, eds. Guide to the Tuba Repertoire: The New Tuba Source Book. 2nd edition. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN. 2006. p. 447. The Kietzer euphonium volume is not included in the R. Winston-Morris, Lloyd Bone Jr. and Eric Paull, eds. Guide to the Euphonium Repertoire: The Euphonium Source Book. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN. 2007.
20 For more information, see work by Doug Yeo, Clifford Bevan, Paul Schmidt, and Alan Moore. Early serpent instruction books include Froelich (1811), Gossec (1812), and Hermenge (c. 1817), as well as undated volumes by Hardy, Métoyen, Schiltz, etc. Ophicleide methods starting in the 1830s included those by Cornette (1835) Clodomir, and Caussinus (c. 1843).
21 R. Winston-Morris and Daniel Perantoni, eds., p. 439. Interestingly, the original 1996 Tuba Source Book edition lists 1891 as the date for op. 84, and no date for op. 85, while the 2006 edition lists no dates for Kietzer’s volumes at all. As many of the method books listed in this edition are undated, and the listing certainly incomplete, this area of research has much potential for the future. At the start of the twentieth century, after the Kietzer C or Bb book, published in 1900, the next decade for which we have certain dates includes de Ville (1905), Fisher (1908), Goldman (1909), and Kitchner (c. 1910).
Baines, Anthony. Brass Instruments: Their History and Development. Dover Publications: Mineola, NY. 1993.
Bevan, Clifford. “The (P)Russian Trumpet.” The Galpin Society Journal. Vol. 41 (Oct., 1988), p. 112-114 .
Bevan, Clifford. The Tuba Family. Faber: London. 1978.
Garden, Edward. “Zimmermann, Julius Heinrich.” Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. 17 Dec. 2009
Hitchcock, Wiley. “Baker, Theodore.” Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. 11 Jan. 2010
Robert Kietzer. Schule for Tuba in F and Eb or Helicon, op. 84. Zimmerman: Frankfurt. 1889.
Robert Kietzer. Schule for Tuba in Bb or C (or Helicon, Bombardon, Sousaphone). Zimmermann: Frankfurt. 1900.
Robert Kietzer. Bariton oder Bass Schule, op. 82. Zimmermann: Frankfurt, 1889.
Moore, Alan G. “Playing the Serpent.” Early Music. Vol. 3, No. 1 (Jan., 1975), pp. 21-24.
Pazdirík, Franz[, and Bohumil Pazdirík]. Universal-Handbuch der Musikliteratur. 12 vols. Vienna, 1904-1910. Reprint, Hilversum: Frits Knuf, 1967.
Tarr, Edward H. East Meets West: The Russian Trumpet Tradition from the Time of Peter the Great to the October Revolution. Bucina: The Historical Brass Society Series No. 4. Pendragon Press: Hillsdale, NY. 2003.
Winston-Morris, R. and Edward R. Goldstein, eds. The Tuba Source Book. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN. 1996.
Winston-Morris, R. and Daniel Perantoni, eds. Guide to the Tuba Repertoire: The New Tuba Source Book. 2nd edition. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN. 2006.
Winston-Morris, R, Lloyd Bone Jr. and Eric Paull, eds. Guide to the Euphonium Repertoire: The Euphonium Source Book. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN. 2007.
Zimmermann, Robert Lienau, Music Publishers Website. Edition Hieber, http://www.zimmermann-frankfurt.de, Accessed December 15, 2009.
Advertisement, Zimmermann. The Musical Times. Vol. 101, No. 1404, February 1960. p. 111.
“History.” St. Petersburg Musical Wind Instruments Factory Website. http://www.stpetemusic.ru/history. Accessed December 15, 2009.
Sheet Music Plus, sheet music website with various compositions by Robert Kietzer currently available, including the three tuba and euphonium method books. http://www.sheetmusicplus.com.
Tubenet. Discussion on the list regarding the Kietzer schule. http://forums.chisham.com/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=764&hilit=robert+kietzer. Posted April 23, 2004, August 28, 2004 and February 20, 2008. Accessed June 11, 2009.
Tubenet, Etude Survey. For a discussion of some favorite method books, see http://forums.chisham.com/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=7642&start=12&hilit=method+books+snedecor. Posted April 25-27, 2005. Accessed January 10, 2010.
Tubist Joanna Hersey, formerly of the United States Coast Guard Band, is on the faculty at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke.